为什么现在的监控系统容易硬盘坏?附原理解析

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分享一则技术贴,为什么现在的监控系统容易硬盘坏?

电脑不能强制关机,否则会损坏硬盘——相信这是很多人关于电脑使用的最初认知。在如下所示的例子中就有多次强制断电,从而导致存储硬盘严重损坏、难以恢复的情况发生。

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那么,强制断电为何会导致硬盘数据丢失?

一般来说,硬盘的断电保护分两种情况,用于大容量低性能存储需求的机械硬盘,以及由于价格较高一般很少当作仓储盘使用的固态硬盘。当机械硬盘损坏时,经常会有电脑假死蓝屏、无法启动、发出很大的咯嗒声等现象。

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基于此,我们就来讨论下机械硬盘的断电损坏原理。

1973 年,IBM 成功研制出了一种新型的硬盘 IBM334,它拥有几个同轴的金属盘片,盘片上涂着磁性材料,这些可以移动的磁头共同密封在一个盒子里面,磁头能从旋转的盘片上读出磁信号的变化——这就是我们今天使用的硬盘的祖先,IBM 称之为温彻斯特硬盘。

目前市面上除了 SSD(俗称固态硬盘)之外,大多数的存储设备均为温彻斯特机械硬盘结构。其工作方式相是一个密闭空间中的留声机,不同的是磁头和碟片之间的距离只有 10 纳米,磁头的运动稍有不慎就会把盘片划伤。断电情况即包含在「稍有不慎」这个范围之内,而且机械硬盘厂商经过几十年的探索已经有了一套相对比较成熟的断电保护方案,所以平时很少会遇到强关电脑之后数据丢失硬盘损坏的情况。

来自 @杜渡渡鸟 (https://weibo.com/3219337542/FxelPmrD0)的评论就表示,以前的监控系统都是 Windows 工控机,可以直接去硬盘目录删除指定某段视频,清除干净之后可以表示事发时正巧摄像头坏了,平常都是正常的。而现在主流的监控设备(如海康、大华、宇视等)都是嵌入式操作系统,录像压缩成功后无法按删除某段指定视频,必须格式化硬盘删除所有录像,理论上格式之后的硬盘数据是可以恢复的,当然具体恢复哪段录像就看硬盘的思想觉悟高不高了。

简单来说,就是在硬盘里安装了一块极小的「电池」,在外部电源断电的瞬间,机械硬盘会利用这块电池的电量优先将磁头挪动到安全区域,避免划伤碟片。这样首先保证了突然断电不会损坏丢失大量数据,只会丢失断电是尚未来得及写入的少部分数据。

当然,除去意外断电这种情况外,正常老化、距离震动、跌落、外力破坏都可能导致磁盘内部精密构件和碟片的损伤。一旦出现了硬盘损坏无法读取的情况,不要慌,第一时间首先要做的是停止继续读写硬盘避免加重硬盘的伤情。然后,就需要专业的数据恢复机构进行「开盘修理」——即把密封的硬盘打开进行针对性的修理。

一般来说,硬盘修理有以下几个步骤:

  • 首先在无尘工作环境下打开硬盘,更换损坏的磁头或者硬盘内的其它部件;

  • 其次将新更换的部件与原有部件重新组合成硬盘,并调试对应的固件;

  • 然后磁场克隆,将受损硬盘中的信息完整的复制到一个没有受损的新硬盘中,这一部分是整个数据恢复中耗时最长的。根据碟片的受损程度不同,需要几小时到一个月不等;

  • 最后在克隆完成的硬盘中对数据进行重新梳理,提取抢救数据。

但是也不用过于恐慌。云备份服务厂商 BackBlaze 每年都会发布一次硬盘使用故障率报告,在 2016 年的报告中以 71939 块用于数据存储的硬盘为样本,计算出了不同品牌硬盘的故障率。从全年来看,共有 1225 块机械硬盘损坏,约合日均故障 3.36 块,2016 全年硬盘故障率仅为 1.95%,相比 2015 年的 2.47% 和 2014 年的 6.39% 有显著进步,可以说机械硬盘厂商的技术提升有目共睹。

在所统计的各大品牌中,希捷硬盘(即本文开头所列案例中涉及的硬盘品牌)虽然多达六款,但故障率也是最高的,SD4000DM001/ST4000DX000 这两款 4TB 的更是高达 31% 上下。

最后想说,关爱硬盘健康,人人有责。

声明:本文引用来自 PingWest 品玩的科普内容。

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都说程序员穿衣就是这么丑,你该看看人家硅谷精英


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不止 20K,Python 工程师薪资再飙升(内附转型指南)


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刚刚,百度和小米宣布在一起,我还以为是谁收购了谁

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linux 硬盘坏文件

08-31

查看发现俩个目录下有坏文件。rn用fsck -t ext3 -a /dev/sdb1 处理后 问题依然 提示内容如下。怎么能修复文件,或者删掉坏文件,保证不再有这样的问题出现?rnrnrn/dev/sdb1 was not cleanly unmounted, check forced.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129172346, i_blocks is 64, should be 24. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129172433, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129172439, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129172440, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129172441, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129172442, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129187852, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129204241, i_blocks is 72, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129204259, i_blocks is 64, should be 8. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129204257, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129220622, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129220636, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129220646, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129220629, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129220628, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129335310, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129335315, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129335307, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129335306, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129351704, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129368079, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129433621, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129466390, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129466389, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129482764, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129482774, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129515530, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129597453, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129613834, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129662988, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129662987, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129728525, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129744908, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129810446, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129810443, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129859594, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129859593, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129875975, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129925128, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129957899, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129957897, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129974277, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129990662, i_blocks is 64, should be 8. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129990663, i_blocks is 64, should be 8. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129990668, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 129990665, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130007052, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130072586, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130105352, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130121736, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130154505, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130220042, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130252808, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130252812, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130301961, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130367496, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130383881, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130400266, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130400265, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130449420, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130449419, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130514955, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130514954, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130514953, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130596875, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130646024, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130646023, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130711559, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130744329, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130777096, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130793477, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130891783, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130940935, i_blocks is 64, should be 8. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130940939, i_blocks is 64, should be 8. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130940940, i_blocks is 64, should be 32. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 130940937, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 131907592, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 131956742, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 131989510, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 132038664, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 132087814, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Inode 132120582, i_blocks is 192, should be 136. FIXED.rn/dev/sdb1: Entry '.EQBackup' in /eqmailstore/domains/kqedu.com/lrj/Maildir (109264953) has deleted/unused inode 109264908. CLEARED.rn/dev/sdb1: Entry '.EQTemp' in /eqmailstore/domains/kqedu.com/lrj/Maildir (109264953) has deleted/unused inode 109264971. CLEARED.rn/dev/sdb1: Entry '.EQBackup' in /eqmailstore/domains/kqedu.com/b29zwdq/Maildir (109265116) has deleted/unused inode 109265131. CLEARED.rn/dev/sdb1: Entry '.EQTemp' in /eqmailstore/domains/kqedu.com/b29zwdq/Maildir (109265116) has deleted/unused inode 109265133. CLEARED.rn/dev/sdb1: Entry '.EQBackup' in /eqmailstore/domains/kqedu.com/3/bgsy1xdj/Maildir (109265257) has deleted/unused inode 109265520. CLEARED.rn/dev/sdb1: Entry '.EQTemp' in /eqmailstore/domains/kqedu.com/3/bgsy1xdj/Maildir (109265257) has deleted/unused inode 109265522. CLEARED.rn/dev/sdb1: Entry 'contactorbook' in /eqmailstore/domains/kqedu.com/3/bgsy1xdj/Maildir (109265257) has deleted/unused inode 109281488. CLEARED.rn/dev/sdb1: Entry '.EQBackup' in /eqmailstore/domains/kqedu.com/3/mgzyeydj/Maildir (109265421) has deleted/unused inode 109265121. CLEARED.rn/dev/sdb1: Entry '.EQTemp' in /eqmailstore/domains/kqedu.com/3/mgzyeydj/Maildir (109265421) has an incorrect filetype (was 2, should be 1).rn rn rn/dev/sdb1: UNEXPECTED INCONSISTENCY; RUN fsck MANUALLY.rn (i.e., without -a or -p options)rn 论坛

硬盘坏区,如何处理?

03-03

如题:rn 我在革系统的时候发现我的硬盘在格式化的时候分别在42%和54%上发生严重的停滞.rn于是我怀疑我的硬盘上有坏区.在一份资料上看到可以在用软盘启动后输入命令:scandisk于是我便执行了这一操作.果然系统扫描到我的系统盘的确有坏区.但是分额可能不是太大.rn我粗略估计,也就是有0.5%的样子是坏掉的.(被标有了B字样)rn我现在的问题是:我下步应当如何去做?rn 1:介于我的坏区数量不算太大(不知道我这样说对不对)我是不是先不用去管?rn 2:如果不去进行处理坏区会进行漫延.如果我现在就进行处理,我应当如何进行?rn 从一分资料上看到应当把我的硬盘上的坏区划到一个新的逻辑磁盘上.我想这样做.可是我无法确定我如何去定位我坏区存在的位置.也就是说:我无法确定在哪个地方开辟一个新的分区.(分区工具我想用PartitionMagic)rnrn 请各位高手帮助我如何去定位我坏区的位置以及如何确定在使用PartitionMagic的时候应当在哪一个位置去创建一个新的分区.rn 谢谢大家!rnrnrn 还有一个问题把我弄得满头雾水,我在重装win2000的时候,系统不断提示 发现了新的硬件,而新的硬件找不到相应的驱动程序(以前并没有这个问题).这是什么原因造成的呢?(我看了一下我的设备管理器, 其中只有一项: 通用串行总线USB控制器 是有问题的.可是它在我机器也没有什么用处(在以前的时候也是这样,我一直没有管它)rn 其它地方都是没有问题的.那么这个奇怪的"硬件"究竟是什么呢?rn 我真的搞不懂rnrnrn 请各位高手一并予以指导,不胜感激!rn 论坛

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